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(A beginners Resource for the Raspberry Pi computer using the Debian distro)
since June 2012

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How2SetUp a Raspberry Pi Windows NAS storage server - SQUEEZE

One of a set of simple easy to use guides for beginners to set up a Raspberry Pi computer.

Ok this instruction sheet will allow you to setup a Raspberry Pi computer to act as a (NAS)Network Addressed Storage server so it will be possible for you to access files from any/all your windows PC's in your house using the Raspberry Pi to share the files on a disk drive attached to one of the usb ports on the Raspberry Pi.

1. Firstly I need remote access to my pi so firstly carry out the How2SetUp Remote Access from the menu on the left.

Lets connect to the Pi remotely using putty so we get the following screen.

Login using the default user pi and the default password raspberry.

2. Now lets make sure all the system updates from Debian have been applied
pi@raspberrypi~$ sudo apt-get update
lots of stuff will fly up the screen so wait until finished, then repeat until nothing else updates - agree y to any y/n questions.

Probably a reboot is a good idea at this time so
pi@raspberrypi~$ sudo reboot

NOTE:- The disk drives that I will be attaching will be formatted in windows format - either FAT32 or NTFS, I suggest you do this with a Windows PC and check the drives are readable by the PC before attaching to the Pi, and also add a test file so that you can see this while testing. You can use unix formatted drives but the FAT/NTFS file systems will make the drives portable in case of a Pi failure.

3. Attach the disk drive or drives to the Raspberry Pi then type
pi@raspberrypi~$ sudo fdisk -l
This will show all the details of the attached disks even if you are not yet using or are able to access them.

I have attached a powered 1Tb disk drive and a 400Mb usb card as examples, so the important bits from the command is shown below - i have left out stuff not relevent for this How2SetUp.

Disk /dev/mmcblk0: 3965 MB, 3965190144 bytes
        Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/mmcblk0p1 17 1216 76800 c W95 FAT32 (LBA)
/dev/mmcblk0p2 1233 26672 1628160 83 Linux
/dev/mmcblk0p3 26689 29744 195584 82 Linux swap / Solaris

Disk /dev/sda: 1000.2 GB, 1000204886016 bytes
   Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sda1 1 121601 976760001 7 HPFS/NTFS

Disk /dev/sdb: 4005 MB, 4005560320 bytes
   Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sdb1 1 486 3903763+ b W95 FAT32

From the above listing you can see that I have a disk /dev/mmcblk0 (the SD Card) which contains 3 partitions - so this is the operating system disk.

I also have /dev/sda which is a Terabyte drive which has one partition and has been formatted in HPFS/NTFS windows NT disk format(used by Windows NT,2000,XP,Vista,Windows 7 etc).

Finally I have a disk /dev/sdb that is a 4Gb usb card with 1 partition but this time its been formatted in a windows FAT32 format - old style formatted.

All the disk drives and partitions attached to the Pi are shown, they are all given a device address such as /dev/sda with a partiton 1 so /dev/sda1 is the disk in the first Pi usb port and is partition 1.

4. Now we need to make the disks available to the operating system so we need to create a point in the filesystem to mount the disks on.

To do this we need to create a directory that the disk can be attached to, so in the example below we will use /mnt/disk1 for the 1st Disk and /mnt/disk2 for the second.
pi@raspberrypi~$ sudo mkdir /mnt/disk1
pi@raspberrypi~$ sudo mkdir /mnt/disk2
The above commands have made 2 new directories for us to use.

To test they exist type
pi@raspberrypi~$ ls /mnt
it should show the following if all is ok


5. Now we need to attach the disks to these folders so we have to edit the /etc/fstab file that is used my the operating system on bootup to connect the physical disks to the filesystem.
pi@raspberrypi~$ sudo vi /etc/fstab
This will show the following

proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
/dev/mmcblk0p1 /boot vfat defaults 0 0
#/dev/mmcblk0p3 none swap sw 0 0

We need to add the bottom 2 lines for the 2 disk drives, please note that the entry vfat or ntfs-3g is dependant on your disk type and should be modified accordingly.
If you have only attached one device only create the relevent entry for that disk.

proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
/dev/mmcblk0p1 /boot vfat defaults 0 0
#/dev/mmcblk0p3 none swap sw 0 0
/dev/sda1 /mnt/disk1 ntfs-3g defaults 0 0
/dev/sdb1 /mnt/disk2 vfat defaults 0 0

To make the files visible to the filesystem type
pi@raspberrypi~$ sudo mount -a
This will try to mount the new devices into /mnt/disk1 and /mnt/disk2 - so to test if it has worked type
pi@raspberrypi~$ ls /mnt/disk1
This should now list any files on the disk that you have put there. If this is not the case then check that the disk types are correct in /etc/fstab

6. Now we need to install a software package called samba which will allow a unix box to share windows files.
pi@raspberrypi~$ sudo apt-get install samba
Wait while stuff flies up the screen and type y at any yes/no prompts
Depending on the Distro you are using you may need to install this, so do it anyway.
pi@raspberrypi~$ sudo apt-get install samba-common-bin

7. When all is complete then the samba package has been installed so will need configuring for your setup, so you will need to edit the /etc/samba/smb.conf file.

pi@raspberrypi~$ sudo vi /etc/samba/smb.conf
The things that possibly need changing are the workgroup entry set to WORKGROUP for XP and previous operating systems and HOME for Windows 7 and above (not sure what is the default for Vista). Then i would comment out the following lines by adding a ; to the front of the item as this makes initial setup and testing easier.

; comment = Home Directories
; browseable = no
; comment = All Printers
; browseable = no
; path = /var/spool/samba
; printable = yes
; guest ok = no
; read only = yes
; create mask = 0700
; comment = Printer Drivers
; path = /var/lib/samba/printers
; browseable = yes
; read only = yes
; guest ok = no
; comment = Samba server's CD-ROM
; read only = yes
; locking = no
; path = /cdrom
; guest ok = yes
; preexec = /bin/mount /cdrom
; postexec = /bin/umount /cdrom

Then finally at the end add your windows share name - i will use a share name of usb and will share out the content of /mnt/disk1 - to share the other disk, add another entry as below with the share name within the [ ] and the path to the other disk drive.

comment = USB Share
path = /mnt/disk1
writeable = Yes
only guest = Yes
create mask = 0777
directory mask = 0777
browseable = Yes
public = yes

8. At last we can restart samba and test the configuration so to restart samba.
pi@raspberrypi~$ sudo service samba restart
and to check the shares and configuration run
pi@raspberrypi~$ sudo testparm -s
this should show something similar to that below

Load smb config files from /etc/samba/smb.conf
rlimit_max: rlimit_max (1024) below minimum Windows limit (16384)
Processing section "[usb]"
Loaded services file OK.
server string = %h server
obey pam restrictions = Yes
pam password change = Yes
passwd program = /usr/bin/passwd %u
passwd chat = *Enter\snew\s*\spassword:* %n\n *Retype\snew\s*\spassword:* %n\n *password\supdated\ssuccessfully* .
unix password sync = Yes
syslog = 0
log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m
max log size = 1000
dns proxy = No
wins support = Yes
panic action = /usr/share/samba/panic-action %d

comment = USB Share
path = /mnt/disk1
read only = No
create mask = 0777
directory mask = 0777
guest only = Yes
guest ok = Yes

If you get the above info then you need to add the pi user to the samba user database
which is not the same as the pi username/password but can be so
pi@raspberrypi~$ sudo smbpasswd -a pi
This will add a pi user with the password you typed in for windows to connect with.

Now try connecting to the server using windows map network drive. On Windows XP you will see the following. So type \\raspberrypi\usb in the Folder field.
Connecting to a <a href='#raspberrypi'>Raspberry Pi</a> NAS server
Now click on the [Connect using a different user name] link and enter raspberrypi\pi in the user name field and raspberry in the password field.
NOTE: windows will always by default try your username and password from your PC to make the connection (in my case my PC is called VNET and my username is simon so you see VNET\simon in the window), and as we only have the one user on the Raspberry Pi, we have to specify that the user connecting is one that exists on the Pi. We also have to also specify the machine that the user is on before the user name therefore the username is raspberrypi\pi.
Connecting to a <a href='#raspberrypi'>Raspberry Pi</a> NAS server
Then click [OK] which will close the pop-up and [Finish], this should now map your drive to the Raspberry Pi NAS server.

9. Right the samba share is working, however if you reboot the Pi then the drive will not be auto mounted, and therefore the share will be empty - so we will need to install a command called autofs which is designed to automatically mount usb disk drives.
pi@raspberrypi~$ sudo apt-get install autofs
This will install the auto usb mounting system.

9. However we need to set up a config file to allow the automounting of the usb disk.
pi@raspberrypi~$ sudo vi /etc/auto.master
At the end of the file is the following


You need to add the following below the +auto.master entry

/media/ /etc/auto.ext-usb --timeout=10,defaults,user,exec,uid=1000

Now you can reboot and the server will keep on working and sharing your windows files on boot

If you dont want your server called raspberrypi then change its name by reading "How2Setup Rename my Pi".

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